The drug delivery systems (DDS) are interdisciplinary approaches that combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, bioconjugate chemistry, and molecular biology. Till recent, injections remained the most common means for administering therapeutic proteins and peptides such as insulin, because of their poor oral bioavailability. Designing and formulating a polypeptide drug delivery has been a persistent challenge because of their unfavorable physicochemical properties, which includes enzymatic degradation, poor membrane permeability and large molecular size. Due to the inconvenience of insulin injections, various approaches have been attempted to formulate insulin for administration by non-injectable routes. Various strategies currently under investigation include chemical modification, formulation vehicles and use of enzyme inhibitors, absorption enhancers and mucoadhesive polymers. To minimize drug degradation and loss, to prevent harmful side-effects and to increase drug bioavailability and the fraction of the drug accumulated in the required zone, various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are currently under development. Among drug carriers one can name soluble polymers, microparticles made of insoluble or biodegradable natural and synthetic polymers, microcapsules, lipoproteins, liposomes, gelfoams, niosomes and micelles. Different approaches to deliver insulin including transdermal, transmucosal, pulmonary route using dry aerosols and inhalers, smart hydrogels, nasal delivery and oral delivery has resulted in recent developments in treatment of diabetes. This review summarizes different pharmaceutical approaches which overcome various physiological barriers that help to improve bioavailability that ultimately achieve formulation goals for insulin delivery by a patient-friendly route.
Endophytic Microbes A Novel Source for Biologically or Pharmacologically Active Secondary MetabolitesBy S T Shukla, P V Habbu, V H Kulkarni, K S Jagadish, Aprajita R Pandey, V N Sutariya-
Endophytes, microorganisms that reside internal tissues of all plant species, are a proven source of novel organic natural molecules, presumed to emphasizing the frontiers of drug discovery. Next to the clinically acknowledged antineoplastic agent, taxol, endophyte research has yielded potential drug, given compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, antidiabetic, anti-alzheimer's disease and immunosuppressant etc. These evidences arises a hope to combat incurable diseases, drug resistance, other challenges related to human health. The potential of finding new drugs that may be effective candidates for treating newly developing diseases in humans is great. This paper focuses particularly need for new useful compounds from endophytes, the recent role of new disease, recent scenario of screening approach for novel drug and their pharmacological interest. It also describes these compounds by different functions, including some examples that illustrate the potential for human use.
The use of animals for scientific experimental purposes has contributed a great deal to the advancement of biomedical knowledge and their continued use is essential for the continued understanding and maintaining the scientific advancement in various biomedical spheres. However efforts need to continue to ensure that their use is minimized. In this regard the concept of 3 R’s ie Replacement, Reduction & Refinement can help researchers to continue their scientific work while addressing the concerns of the animal rights activists and other agencies involved in regulation of experiments on animals. This article gives an overview of the various alternative approaches that can be employed based on the concept of the 3Rs. The review also touches upon the 4th R- Rehabilitation, the importance of which is now being increasingly recognized. Though the ultimate aim is to completely replace the animals, where that is not possible reduction should be aimed for and refinement techniques should be developed to ensure that the distress to the animals is minimal. In this context the principles of the 3R’s is important as today’s refinement may be tomorrow’s reduction which may ultimately lead to complete replacement of animals in experiments.
Thalidomide disaster brought the Pharmacovigilance system as an essential part of healthcare system. The European Union harmonizes their system along with spreading awareness between the healthcare professionals and the patient’s for the reporting of drug related problems, to increase the patient safety, while Asian continent, still having unorganized system for ADR reporting, Asian continent need to be improve the Pharmacovigilance system and harmonize it in various means by improving the ADR Reporting and Patient safety.
The present study was aimed to find out phytochemical testing and acute toxicity effect of the methanolic extract of Actiniopteris Dichotoma Bedd in rats. For phytochemical testing, depending upon the type of natural drug under examination, the test solution may be a aqueous extract or specific menstrum like petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aquous etc. All the different extracts were then subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis to assess the presence of various phytoconstituents. The acute oral toxicity of the crude ethanolic extracts of Actiniopteris dichotoma was evaluated in mice using the procedures described by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 423 guidelines. The acute toxicity study showed that animals fed by oral gavages tolerated the limit dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Actiniopteris dichotoma bedd. There were no visible signs of acute toxicity during the 14 days of observation.
Methemoglobin is a useless form of hemoglobin constantly formed in red cells of peripheral blood. It is converted to functional hemoglobin by enzyme reducing systems and remains low in healthy. Apart from genetic defects methemoglobinemia occurs after exposure to oxidants in environment and chemicals. We report a case of 40 year old male with Indoxacarb poisoning presented with cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, improved after giving methylene blue and supportive management.