An Investigation of Antianxiety Effect of Alcoholic Flower Extract of Matricaria Chamomilla L. in MiceBy Archana CE-
This study was performed to investigate the anxiolytic effects of alcoholic extract of Matricaria chamomilla L (AEMC) in mice using the elevated plus-maze model (EPM), light dark model and hole board test. The extract administered orally in three different doses of 250mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 750mg/kg, were able to increase the time spent and the number of arm entries in the open arms of the elevated plus-maze, also increases the time spent by mice in the illuminated side of the light–dark test, dose of 500mg/kg and 750mg/kg showed more significant increase in nose poking and decrease locomotion in hole board test, in comparison with control animals. This effect was comparable to that of the diazepam (1.0mg/kg p.o.). These results indicate that AEMC is an effective anxiolytic agent.
Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of different extracts of the leaves of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. Methods: The shade dried leaves of Amaranthus tricolor.L was extracted with ethanol (95%) and then partitioned by petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antioxidant activity of various extracts of Amaranthus tricolor was evaluated in vitro by Free radical scavenging activity (DPPH method) and Nitric oxide scavenging activity assay. Ascorbic acid was used as a reference standard. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and Nitric oxide scavenging activity among the three fractions. Conclusion: Our results showed that Amaranthus tricolor displayed potent antioxidant properties, supporting the ethno-medical use given to this plant for treatment of diseases.
Nootropic acitivity of essential oil of Cymbopogon Citratus (EOCC) was studied in mice. Morries water maze employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in mice. The essential oil (1gm/kg) significantly attenuated amnestic deficits induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and natural aging, also exhibited decreased escape latencies time (ELT) and increased Time Spend in Target Quadrant (TSTQ) significantly in the aged mice and scopolamine induced amnesic mice as compared with Piracetam (200 mg/kg, i.p.). To delineate the possible mechanism through which Cymbopogon Citratus elicits the anti-amnesic effects, we studied its influence on central cholinergic activity by estimating the whole brain acetylcholinesterase activity. Cymbopogon Citratus significantly decreased acetyl cholinesterase activity in mice. The results indicate that essential oil of Cymbopogon Citratus might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly. The underlying mechanism of action can be attributed to its anti acetylcholinesterase property.
Aloe Vera has been used medicinally throughout history by many different cultures. Many compounds have been found in the exudates of the Aloe Vera plant that have been used medically by humans. We have examined the pharmacological hypoglycemic action of Aloe Vera in diabetic rats. Aloe Vera 250mg/kg (single dose study) reduced glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, and lipids after treatment for 24 hrs. In chronic study (multiple dose study) also Aloe Vera reduced creatinine, urea, lipids, triglycerides and glucose after 15days and significantly reduced glucose levels at 15th day in diabetic rats. In glucose tolerance test in diabetic rats with Aloe Vera 250 mg/kg demonstrated glucose levels were found significantly less compared to the control group. Aloe vera serves as an important alternative source in the management of diabetes mellitus involved in reducing increased blood glucose during diabetes which should be examined further by oral hypoglycemic therapy.
Fluoride compounds are naturally present in soil, water and food. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible ameliorative effect of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on sodium fluoride induced oxidative stress mediated genotoxicity in the bone marrow cells of rats. Rats were orally (gastric intubation) pretreated with EGCG (40mg/kg BW) followed by Sodium fluoride (NaF) (25mg/kg BW) daily for a period of 28days. NaF intoxicated rats showed a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleus (MN) in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), structural chromosome aberrations (CA) with decreased mitotic index (MI) in bone marrow cells. We also found a significant increased DNA damage in bone marrow cells. Pre- treatment with EGCG (40mg/kg BW) significantly reduced the NaF induced genotoxicity as evidenced with the decreased micronucleus, chromosomal aberration and DNA damage, with increased mitotic index in rat bone marrow cells. In conclusion, the obtained data suggest that EGCG potentially protects bone marrow cells from NaF induced DNA damage and genotoxicity.
Some Observations in Wistar Rats Administered Ethanolic Extracts of the Stem Barks of Anogeissus LeiocarpusBy Sabina M. Num, Sunday B. Oladele, King A. N. Esievo, Nicodemus M. Useh -
Anogeissus leiocarpus is a plant/ herb used for the traditional treatment of various ailments, including diabetes mellitus by many rural communities in Africa. The active principles of the herb have been defined, but there is no documented report about the effects of extracts of the stem barks of this herb on body fluids. In this study, we report for the first time, the clinical presentation, haematological changes, variation in biochemical profiles and the resistance of the red cell mass of Wister rats administered ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of the herb to osmotic stress (erythrocyte osmotic fragility, EOF). The clinical signs observed following administration of the herb include anorexia, dullness, rough hair coats and huddling. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in mean red blood cell counts of all the experimental groups, compared to the control. Mean packed cell volume (PCV) was statistically significantly elevated (p<0.05) in some experimental groups, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was elevated in others, compared to the control. Total leucocytes (WBC) did not vary significantly (p>0.05) in all the groups, compared to the control. Differential leucocytes were essentially similar (p>0.05) in all the experimental groups investigated. Platelet counts statistically significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in all but the experimental group administered 500 mg/kg of extract, compared to the control. Mean EOF significantly decreased (p<0.05) in some groups, while mean serum glucose levels decreased significantly (p<0.01) in all the experimental groups, except the control. The implications of these findings in relation to the use of the herb are discussed. It is concluded that for the herb to be certified safe for clinical use to ameliorate diabetes, it must be administered in combination with an expicient that modulates thrombocytopaenia.
The methanolic leaf extract of Typha angustata was intended to evaluate the effect on the central nervous system (CNS) using a number of neuro pharmacological experimental models like open field test, hole board apparatus in mice. The extract, at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was shown significant CNS depressant activity by reduction in rearing and number of squares crossed in open field and reduction in head dipping in hole board apparatus. These results suggest that the methanolic extract possess significant CNS depressant activity when compared to the other groups.
Neuroprotective Effect of Acorus Calamus on a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Induced by 6-HydroxydopamineBy Jay Rabadia, Umang Hirani, Mohit Dadhaniya, Sachin Bhensdadiya-
The well known pathology of PD is the preferential death of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra pars compact ( SNpc ), causing a decrease in striatal dopamine ( DA ) and presence of intracellular a – synuclein- positive inclusions called Lewy bodies1. Acorus calamus is commonly known as ‘‘bach’’ or‘‘ugragandha’’ in India. Roots, rhizomes and leaves have been used in the Indian systems of traditional medicine for hundreds of years. The rhizome contains active ingredients possessing Insecticidal, Neuroprotective, Antifungal, Antibacterial and Allelopathic properties. Acorus calamus is a traditional medicinal plant that is commonly used for treating central nervous system abnormalities. Methanolic extract of rhizomes of Acorus calamus was administered at three level dose (250, 500 & 750 mg/kg ) on a rat model of Parkinson’s disease induced by 6-hyroxydopamine. The results showed that Acorus calamus markedly improved the locomotor, motor balance, coordination in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. The expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in substantia nigra (SN) and the content of extracellular dopamine (DA) in striatum were also significantly increased after AC treatment. Moreover, significant AC increased the level of DJ-1 & decreased the α-synuclein levels in western blotting analysis. We propose that AC has potent anti-Parkinson property possibly through increasing TH, DA, DJ-1& Decreasing α-synuclein in PD rats2
Phytochemical Investigation and Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay of Extracts of Picralima Nitida (Apoceanacea) Staph. SeedsBy Owolarafe T. A., Dosunmu S. O., Yakubu M. T., Lawal A. T., Akolade J. O., Muhammed M. B., Ononamadu C. J-
Phytochemical study was undertaken on the seed of picralima nitida staph. Phytochemical analysis based on test of colouration and precipitate formation was carried out on four different extracts of P. nitida seed , extraction was based solvents polarities and are aqueous, methanol, ethylacetate and hexane. Also brine shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) of the extracts was carried out to detect possible cytotoxicity effects and possible pharmacological activities of the plant seed. Cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of LC50 (lethality concentration) were carriedout in three replicates of the concentration of the seed extracts and survining brine shrimp were recorded after 24 hours. The tests carried out shows the presence of saponin, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, glycoside and anthraquinones. However no reducing sugar was observed with alkaloids, glycoside and steroids found/observed in all the extracts. The extracts were potent against the brine shrimp with LC50 values of 317, 317, 110 and 29 ppm (μg/mL), respectively.This indicates the presence of bioactive components in these seed extracts which could account for the reported pharmacological effects of the plant. Thus, the results support the uses of these plant seeds in traditional medicine.
Evaluation of Hepatoprotective and Antihepatotoxic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn on CCL4 Induced RatsBy Thatipelli Ravi Chander, and Yellu Narsimha Reddy-
Liver is the largest organ of the body, it plays vital role in regulation of body functions. Various herbal medicines were used traditionally for liver disorders. In this study we evaluated hepatoprotective activity and antihepatotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides Linn(EAEE) was aganist CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity model in albino Wistar rats (150 – 200 gms) at a dose of 75 & 150 mg/kg b.w p.o. It was reported that Evolvulus alsinoides was used in the treatment of hypertension, memory enhancer, stomachic, nervous disorders etc. Preliminary phytochemical studies of the EAEE showed the presence of Carbohydrates, Flavonoids, Glycoside, Alkaloids and Proteins. There was no mortality when conducting the acute toxicity studies, upto a dose of 1500 mg/kg b.w p.o. Hence two test doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg b.w p.o were selected in the study. Hepatotoxicity was induced with CCl4, silymarin 50 mg/kg b.w.p.o. was used as standard. Administration of CCl4, significantly elevated the levels of SGPT, SGOT, ALP, TB, CHOL and lowered the levels of TP and ALB. When EAEE 150 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of hepatic damage by significantly (P<0.01) reversing the effects of CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity. Histopatholigical studies revealed that 90% Ethanolic extract exhibited normalization of liver architecture, as compared to silymarin. Results of our study suggest that Ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides may possess hepatoprotective activity which may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extract.
Cardioprotective Effect of Methanolic extract of Syzygium Aromaticum on Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in RatBy Jay Rabadia, Umang Hirani,Divyash Kardani, Ankur Kaneria-
Myocardial infarction (MI) is the interruption of blood supply to part of the heart, causing heart cells to die, commonly due to occlusion (blockage) of a coronary artery. Herbal drugs are known to exhibit creditable medicinal properties for the treatment of heart ailments and need to be explored to identify their potential application in prevention and therapy of human ailments. Considering this aspect, the study aimed to elucidate the cardio protective activity of Syzygium Aromaticum. Myocardial infarction was induced by a subcutaneous administration of isoproterenol. The positive inotropic and chronotropic response of isoproterenol caused a severe oxidative stress in the myocardium through increased lipid per oxidation. Extract of Syzygium Aromaticum was administered at a dose of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg for 30 days. At the end of treatment period Isoproterenol 5.25 and 8.5 mg/kg s.c. was administered on two consecutive days (31th & 32nd day). haemodynamic parameters were recorded and the hearts were subsequently removed and processed for histopathological and biochemical studies. Histological examination of rat’s heart section confirmed myocardial injury with isoproterenol. Heart tissue enzyme analysis in albino (Wistar) male rats, such as LPO, GSH, GPX, GST, SOD, CAT, CK-MB, MDA and biochemical analysis in serum viz., ALT, AST, LDH, CPK were performed. Methanolic extract of Syzygium Aromaticum (CPE) at the dose of (250, 500 & 750 mg/kg) produced significant salvages the heart from isoproterenol induced myocardial ischemic injury. Syzygium Aromaticum contain eugenol, eugenol acetate, caryophyllene, sesquetrepene ester are having antioxidant, antilipid peroxidative, free radical scavenging properties and anti-ischemic activity justify its potential therapeutic value in the treatment of ischemic heart diseases in albino rats.
Disposition Kinetics of Ceftriaxone and Sulbactam (1-1) in Black Bengal Goats with Experimental MastitisBy M. Prashant, U. K. Karmakar, S. Suman, A. K. Mishra, B. K. Datta, A. K. Chakraborty, T. K. Mandal, T. K. Sar-
The pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone, sulbactam individually and in combination (ceftriaxone: sulbactam, 1:1) at 20 mg kg-1 body weight (bw) as single dose intravenous administration (i.v.) was conducted in healthy and experimental Escherichia coli O157:H7 induced mastitis in black Bengal goats. Semi logarithmic plot of plasma ceftriaxone and sulbactam concentrations against time in healthy and mastitis induced goats alone and in combination witnessed 2-compartment models. Ceftriaxone could not be detected in plasma beyond 6 h in individual therapy and 8 h in combination therapy with sulbactam. Ceftriaxone persisted in the milk for longer time in experimental mastitis when given in combination with sulbactam. The lower Cmax milk: Cmax plasma (≤1) values indicated inadequate distribution and penetration of ceftriaxone into the mammary glands in experimental mastitis. Ceftriaxone was rapidly metabolized to ceftizoxime post-dosing which was also detected in the plasma and milk for considerable period of time. Mastitis-challenged goats treated with sulbactam had grave prognosis. Pharmacokinetics of both ceftriaxone and sulbactam got altered in goats post experimental mastitis. The dosage of the drugs in combination therapy of ceftriaxone with sulbactam may be reduced in experimental mastitis compared to healthy goats.
Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Properties of Aqueous Plant Extracts of Viscum Album Against Oxidative Damage in Normal Albino RatsBy Ihegboro G.O. , O.A.T. Ebuehi, Nwachukwu, F.C-
The aim of this research was to determine the antioxidant and antimutagenic properties of aqueous plant extracts of Viscum album. Most of the diseases in the world today have been associated with the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mutagenic materials. Oxygen free radical induces damage due to peroxidation to biomembranes and also to DNA, which lead to tissue damage, thus resulting in the development of degenerative diseases. Antioxidant is, any substance that, when present at low concentration significantly delays or prevent oxidation of cell content like proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and DNA. Thus antioxidants neutralize the effect of free radicals through different ways and may prevent the body from various diseases. Evidence suggests that Compounds especially from natural sources such as medicinal plants are capable of providing protection against free radicals and mutagens. From the research findings, it could be deduced that Viscum album increased the antioxidant enzyme actions and also showed antimutagenic properties. This suggest that the plant can be used as therapeutic agent against a number of diseases.
Background: The choice of specific corticosteroid is determined by various factors such as accuracy of diagnosis, age, socioeconomic status of the patients and personal experienced of the clinician. Drug therapy is considered to be a major component of patient’s management in health care setting, including primary health care. Although the benefits gained by patient from pharmacological intervention are valuable. Methods: Specific Desgined Quistionare based performa were desgined for the study Results: Total 100 Prescription were analysed to judge the pattern of corticosteroid therapy. Maximum patients were male (52) . maximum patients were from age group 21-40 yr. The present study showed Betamethasone was prescribed in 55% of prescription. Methyl prednisolone in 22.5%, Betamethasone Valerate 8.33%, Chlobetasol Propionate 7.5% and Hydrocortisone 6.67% respectively . Average no. of drug prescribed were 2.95. Topical preparation of Corticosteroid was most common prescribed drug. Conclusion: Our results provide some suggestion for professional groups for developing clinical guideline. In summary we have found that clinician mostly prescribed topical corticosteroids, which have high glucocorticoid potency and low minaralocorticoid potency. They rarely use injectable and oral preparation to avoid systemic side effect. Prescription by brand name was matter of concern.
The aim of this study was to develop an oral drug formulation of doxycycline hyclate that maintain longer therapeutic levels than conventional forms. A polymethacrylate and acrylic acid based matrix were used in different proportions to obtain controlled-release formulations; DOX1, DOX2 and DOX-C (without excipients). Serum concentrations vs. time profile were investigated after their oral administration in healthy dogs. DOX1 and DOX2 showed therapeutic concentrations for 60 hours, while DOX-C only 24 hours. The pharmacokinetic values obtained were K½el, Cmax, Tmax, AUC, AUC∞, AUCt, AUMC, RT, Kel, Vdss, Clb and Frel. DOX1 did not differ significantly from DOX-C but showed significant differences in all variables with DOX2 (p<0.05). In conclusion DOX1 had the best pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics relationship for time-dependent drug and longer release time (60 hours), thereby reducing the frequency of administration, the patient's stress, the occurrence of adverse effects and the cost of treatment.
Background: Benzoic acid and its salts such as sodium benzoate (SB) are used as disinfectants and preservatives in numerous foods, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the teratogenic effects of SB on the skeletal system of Balb/c mice during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Thirty female Balb/c mice were divided into 3 groups, two experimental (I, II) that received daily intraperitoneal injection of 280 or 560 mg/kg of SB, respectively and one control group which received normal saline. All injections were carried out starting 10 days before mating and 6th to 15th of gestational days (GDs). Dams underwent Cesarean section on GD 18 and then morphological studies were done on the offspring’s. All malformed fetuses were stained with alizarin red S and alician blue and assessed with stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Anova,Tukey and Mann-Whitney U tests and using version 16 of SPSS software and differences less than 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Various anomalies were detected in fetuses of experimental groups such as: severe skin hemorrhage, craniofacial deformities, vertebral column defects like scoliosis, limbs defects and neural tube defects. Discussion: This study revealed that administration of SB before and during pregnancy probably can induce several malformations in the fetuses. Therefore, until further studies, the use of SB-containing preparations might need to be limited in pregnant women.
Introduction- Hypertension and bipolar disorder are both very common clinical disorders. Lithium remains the mainstay of therapy of bipolar disorder and beta-blockers continue to be used frequently for hypertension. Co-administration of both the drug groups are a possibility and how they affect each other is valuable to know. Method: Five groups of albino rabbits (n=10 each) were included in this study. One group fed with gum tragacanth served as control. Four groups were treated orally with lithium carbonate (50mg/kg), three groups out of them were co-administered with propranolol (15mg/kg), metoprolol (10mg/kg) & atenolol (10mg/kg) respectively. The blood drawn from the marginal ear vein of rabbits was used for estimation of serum lithium, sodium, and potassium levels by flame photometry. The effect of drug treatment on heart rate was recorded using a transducer connected to a polygraph machine. Result: The administration of lithium to the rabbits caused an insignificant reduction in heart rate and in serum potassium concentration but raised serum sodium concentration (140.2±3.83 to 146.78±4.21). When propranolol was added the lithium concentration was found to be significantly raised from 0.47±0.02 to 0.63±0.06, and there was a marked reduction in the heart rate (246.56±6.69 to 206.3±8.98). The co-administration of lithium along with metoprolol & atenolol didn't show any significant change in either the heart rate, serum lithium or the sodium & potassium concentration. Conclusion: It may be unsafe to co-administer lithium and beta-blockers. However in case of extreme necessity a cardioselective beta-blocker is to be preferred over a non-selective one
Objective: To test the hypothesis that oxytocin could alter gastrointestinal motility and, therefore, be potentially useful as a prokinetic drug in the horse. Method: On day 1, 200 barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres (diameter=3.2, weight=20mgr) were administered to each of 30 healthy, adult Warmblood horses via nasogastric intubation. During the next three days the following variables were recorded: gut motility, defecation frequency per day, weight of feces per defecation and intestinal transit time. On day 5, following the administration of barium spheres, horses were randomly separated in two even subgroups. The first subgroup received 0.07IU/kg of oxytocin intravenously while the second subgroup received 0.14IU/kg. During the next three days the same variables were recorded of each horse. Results: Oxytocin administration led to a statistically significant increase in gut motility (p<0.01 for subgroup 1 and 2). That increase was transit, lasting for almost an hour post-administration and was more consistent for subgroup 2. As far as defecation frequency and fecal weight are concerned, it seems that oxytocin administration led to small but statistically significant increase in both subgroups which was noted only for the day of oxytocin’s administration. Oxytocin administration led to a faster intestinal transit time in both subgroups (p<0.001). It is worth noting that although no statistically significant difference was found between the two subgroups in any of the variables, 3 horses of the second subgroup showed signs of abdominal discomfort that reached its peak 35 minutes post-administration and subsided spontaneously within 30 minutes. Conclusion: Oxytocin could be useful as a prokinetic drug in cases of gastrointestinal disease as it increases gut motility, daily defecation frequency, fecal weight per defecation and intestinal transit time. Moreover, this effect was not found to be non-dose dependent, therefore the lower dose is recommended
Lawsonia inermis L. (Lythraceae), popularly known as henna, is a small tree or shrub. Its root has been used in Philippian alternative medicine for hysteria and nervous disorders, but to our best knowledge no scientific study has been conducted on these activities. Therefore here an attempt is done to screen anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Lawsonia inermis L. root in albino mice. The extract, administered orally, was able to increase open arm exploration in elevated plus maze and increase nose poking rate in hole board test for anxiolytic activity.The same extract increase immobility time of mice subjected to forced swim test and tail suspension test for antidepressant activity. The screening test for antidepressant effect of the drug is not encouraging or negative. Therefore the data obtained from the study allows us to suggest Lawsonia inermis root as an anxiolytic agent but not as an antidepressant. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of carbohydrates, sterols, terpenoids, flavanoids, saponins and coumarins which are responsible for these pharmacological effects.
Interaction of Verapamil, a Calcium Channel Blocker, with Fluvoxamine, Venlafaxine and Tianeptine on Their Antidepressant Activity in MiceBy Ashok K Sharma, Anjan Khadka, Navdeep Dahiya.-
Introduction: Depression is a common co-morbid illness with a prevalence of 16-23% in patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Verapamil, a calcium channel blocker, is widely used in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases and has been shown to possess antidepressant effects, however, information on its interaction with antidepressant drugs like fluvoxamine, venlafaxine and tianeptine is limited. Hence, the present study was conducted. Method: The study was carried out in albino mice in two phases. In phase I, antidepressant activity of verapamil, fluvoxamine, venlafaxine and tianeptine was confirmed after their single dose administration using forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) and their minimum antidepressant doses were determined. In phase II, the interaction of verapamil with fluvoxamine, venlafaxine and tianeptine for antidepressant activity was studied by administering these drugs orally on daily basis for 28 days and performing FST & TST on 1st, 14th and 28th day. Results: In phase I, all the studied drugs demonstrated antidepressant activity in dose dependent manner in both FST and TST. Minimal antidepressant dose of verapamil, fluvoxamine, venlafaxine and tianeptine was observed as 40, 25, 25 and 10 mg/kg respectively. In phase II, combinations of sub-antidepressant dose of verapamil (20 mg/kg) with sub-antidepressant doses of fluvoxamine (12.5 mg/kg), venlafaxine (12.5 mg/kg) and tianeptine (5 mg/kg) demonstrated additive antidepressant activity when compared to the control group and individual drug groups after same duration of treatment. Conclusion: Verapamil exerts dose dependent as well as treatment duration dependent antidepressant activity which is additive to antidepressant activity of fluvoxamine, venlafaxine and tianeptine.
Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Tobacco Plant (Nicotiana Tabaccum) Causes Hepatotoxicity in Male Wistar Albino RatsBy Carole Chibuzo Nweze, Alqasim Abdullahi Mustapha, and Ilyas Muhammed Alkali-
Many medicinal plants use traditionally have been in use by man without the actual knowledge of their toxic potential. One of such plants used is tobacco plant leave (Nicotiana tabacum), which is chewed in order to relax the smoker. This work is aimed at determining the biochemical effects of aqueous leaves extracts of Tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) in some liver indices in Wistar albino rats. Four groups of animals were studied. The Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group 1 was treated with normal saline orally, group 2, 3 and 4 were treated with 0.5mL of the extracts, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg respectively. The animals were by a drop of proparicaine in each eye to minimise discomfort, blood sample was collected through Retro-orbital blood collection method 24 h after the last treatment, then alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and bilirubin levels were assayed. The result obtained showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in the ALT, AST and ALP activity in the treated group when compared with the control. Also, bilirubin (total and direct) showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in concentration with the total bilirubin having the highest increase in the activity. The present results indicate that the aqueous leaves extracts of Tobacco plant (Nicotiana tabacum) might not be safe for human consumptions as they are associated with liver toxicity.
A Study Involving Indian Subpopulation of Sikkim for the Effect of Sitagliptin, in Control of Diabetes Mellitus Type-2By Ajay Kumar Gupta, Siddhartha Mishra, Ashok Kumar Sharma, Sushil Sharma, Navdeep Dahiya, Dick Balbir Singh Brashier-
Introduction There is a growing worldwide epidemic of Type - 2 Diabetes mellitus and it is now a common and serious global health problem. The population in and around Sikkim, a state in north eastern part of Indian province has never been studied for anti-diabetic drugs and thus was thought to take one. This is a community based, case - control prospective study involving adult population residing at Sikkim, reporting to Secondary Care Hospital and receiving treatment for diabetes. Methods A standardized random sample of 500 patient’s was considered. Pretested proforma was filled after detailed examination and taking informed consent of the patients after adding Sitaglipitin100 mg daily for 48 weeks. Data was then compiled and statistical analysis was done using Carl Pearson’s correlation, chi square test, odds ratio, students‘t’ test and correlation coefficients as applicable. Parameters for analysis Glycosylated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) Plasma glucose (Fasting and Postprandial) Results The drop in the blood sugar during the entire study, it was seen that in the Sitagliptin group, the drop was persistent and steady after 8-12 weeks while in the controls, though there was an initial drop of blood glucose, the glycemic control was not continuous but intermittent. Conclusions In patients with Type-2 Diabetes, Sitagliptin 100 mg/day was well tolerated and provided good glycemic control and none of the cases had relapse of hyperglycemia. Effective blood sugar control was seen after 36 weeks of commencement of therapy.
Back Ground: Ninety-nine percent of fatal poisonings occur in developing countries, particularly among agricultural workers. In a particular area it is important to known the magnitude and pattern of acute poisonings as it is important for early diagnosis, treatment and for preventive measures. Aim: To identify and compare the clinical characteristics and risk factors in poisoning patients presenting to the ED of a tertiary care rural Hospital. Methods: Retrospective studies of 540 poisoning cases were recorded during the period of 4 years between April 2009 and April 2013 at Emergency Department, Narayana Medical College Hospital, Nellore, and Andhrapradesh. Fatal poisonings were studied for age, sex, socioeconomic status, marital status, type of poison and manner (accidental, suicidal or homicidal). Pre-hospital care, length of stay, outcome. Inclusion Criteria: All patients presenting to emergency department age older than 18 years. Exclusion criteria: Patients of paediatric age group were not included in the study. Results: Out of 537 cases, Suicidal cases registered were 77.65% and Accidental cases registered were 22.35%. Out of total 537 cases, 257 (47.86%) were males while 280 (52.14%) were females. Higher poisoning rate observed in 20-30 age groups. Predominantly hair dye poisoning observed in 21.97%, Pesticide poisoning observed in 30.73%. Conclusion: Young married males of rural background with agricultural occupation and failure of monsoon are the risk factors associated with poisoning cases.
Biochemical Response of Indian Desert Gerbils to Difethialone Anticoagulant, Under Laboratory Conditions.By Kanan Saxena-
Difethialone, a second generation anticoagulant shows a very good efficacy against Indian Desert Gerbil, Meriones hurrianae, as seen in the preliminary toxicity tests performed. Biochemical studies in laboratory reveal that the administration of Difethialone (LD50) has significant toxic effects on the hepatic tissues of desert gerbils. Liver is the chief organ which metabolizes the rodenticide. Hence, different liver function tests were performed on liver residues at different intervals of days to analyse Difethialone toxicity. Also, the associated symptoms of poisoning were observed. A quick change in liver parameters with a very small dose resulting in higher mortality of gerbils was seen. Therefore, Difethialone emerges as a promising and comparatively cheaper substitute in rodent pest control.
DL-α-Lipoic Acid Attenuates Acute Aniline Induced Splenic Toxicity in Rats -A Biochemical and Histoarchitecture StudyBy Momin Omer, Aman Upaganlawar, Chandrashekhar Upasani.-
Introduction: Present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of DL-α-Lipoic acid in aniline induced spleen toxicity in rats. Material and Methods: Splenic toxicity was induced in rats by administration of aniline (30mg/kg/p.o) for a period of 7 days. Treatment groups received DL-α-Lipoic acid (40 mg/kg/day, p.o) for 7 days after aniline administration for 7 days i.e the study protocol was for 14 days. At the end of treatment period various serum and tissue parameters were evaluated. Rats administered with Aniline showed a significant alteration in general parameters such as organ weight, body weight, water intake, feed consumption and faecal matter content. It also alters hematological parameters (RBC, WBC and Hemoglobin content), biochemical parameters (total iron content, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and nitric oxide content) and histopathology of spleen. Results: Treatment with DL-α-Lipoic acid for 7 days post aniline administeration showed significant recovery in aniline induced splenic toxicity. Conclusion: The present result showed that involvement of oxidative and nitrasative stress in aniline induced splenic toxicity and DL-α-Lipoic acid protects the rats from the toxicity which might be due to its strong antioxidant property.
Euphorbia thymifolia root is having the protective effect against female reproductive dysfunctions. This study is to evaluate the protective effect of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root in treating female reproductive dysfunction induced by stress. Forced swimming stress (15min/day for 28 days) and restraint stress (3h/day for 28 days) were the methods employed to induce female reproductive dysfunction in rats. Ethanolic extract of Euphorbia thymifolia root was given to rats in two doses, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg for 28 days along with induction of stress and its effectiveness was assessed by observing changes in FSH, LH, Prolactin, Estradiol and Progesterone. The results were analysed by using one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test. Euphorbia thymifolia root extract showed a significant protective effect which is evident by increase in the levels of FSH, LH, Progesterone and decrease in the levels of Prolactin and Estradiol which was found to be dose dependent. The protective effect may be due to the presence of various phytochemical constituents like alkaloids, flavonoids and other constituents present in the Euphorbia thymifolia root.
The current investigation deals with the extraction and phytochemical characterization of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Anethum graveolens. The nutritional and medicinal benefits of vegetables provide a better support for human wellbeing. There are several vegetables which are used for day to day kitchen in different forms. In the present work, we have investigated phytochemicals of Trigonella foenum-graecum and Anethum graveolens which are one of the most important vegetables used in India. The presence of phytochemicals including phytosterols, saponins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, tannins, proteins, glycosides, flavonoids, carbohydrates, quinones, coumerin, terpenoids, anthocyanins and emodins were determined for their presence. Phytosterols, proteins, glycosides, flavonoids, quinines, coumerin and terpenoids were present in both of the vegetables while alkaloid is present only in Trigonella foenum-graecum. Saponines, phenolic compounds and tannins, anthocyanins and emodins were absent in both vegetables. It was concluded that the extracts of both vegetables consists of important constituents of pharmacological activities.
Mutagenicity Evaluation of an Azo Dye - Reactive Red Using the Ames Test and in Vitro Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus (CKB-MN) AssayBy T. N. Sathya, P. Dhandapani and V Deepa-
Azo dyes are extensively used in the textile industry and in printing inks, plastics and other materials. There are numerous studies that have implicated the adverse health effects that azo dyes may pose and it has been clarified that the biological activity of these azo dyes depends on their ability to generate reactive metabolites. The present study aimed to evaluate the genotoxic potential of one such azo dye, Reactive red using the Ames test and the Cytokinesis - Block micronucleus (CKBMN) assay in human lymphocytes. In the Ames test, no mutagenic response was seen in any of the test concentrations and tester strains, generally, evidenced as a two-three fold increase over the concurrent solvent controls. In the CKBMNT, the percentage micronucleatedbinucleate cells in the solvent control and in the treated groups, (4-hour, +/-S9 and continuous, -S9), fell within the historical range of the laboratory. Considering the lack of a 2-3 fold increase in the number of revertant colonies in reactive red-treated plates with respect to the solvent controls, it may be concluded that the test substance is non-mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium tester strains, at the doses tested and the experimental conditions employed.The percentage micronucleated binucleate cells of all Dye- treated cultures fell within or close to the historical control values and were not significantly different from the concurrent solvent control cultures. No dose-dependent increase in the frequency of micronuclei was recorded. Thus, Reactive red was considered non-mutagenic in the Ames test and non genotoxic in the in vitro micronucleus assay in human peripheral blood lymphocytes at the doses tested and the experimental conditions employed
Tuberculosis is associated with significant inflammation and fibrosis resulting in complications like pleural fibrosis, ureteral strictures, stricture of fallopian tubes leading to infertility, chronic pericarditis with thickening of pericardium and fibrosis, tubercular meningitis leading to fibrosis etc. Rifampicin when given in these conditions, by virtue of their anti-inflammatory activity may reduce complications of the disease. Based on the controversial reports on influence of rifampicin on inflammation, rifampicn was investigated for its anti-inflammatory activity in both acute (carrageenan induced rat paw edema) and subacute (foreign body induced granuloma) models of inflammation using male Wistar rats. Rifampicin when compared with control showed significant inhibition (p<0.01) of rat paw edema in acute model and granuloma dry weight in subacute model of inflammation, indicating significant anti-inflammatory activity. Histopathological examination of grass pith revealed markedly reduced fibroblasts and collagen in rifampicin which was similar to aspirin when compared to control. These results clearly indicate that rifampicin has anti-inflammatory property.
Arsenic and Di(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Interact to Alter Individual Effects of some Oxidative Stress Indices in RatBy Afolabi Olusegun Kayode, Fatoki John Olabode, Ugbaja Regina Ngozi, Adekunle Adeniran Sanmi, Adedosu Olaniyi Temitope, Ademuyiwa Oladipo.-
Arsenic and phthalate are common contaminants found in the environment and concurrent exposure to these agents is highly probable. We therefore, investigated the effects of sodium arsenite (100 mg/l in drinking water) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) (100 mg/kg body weight by gavage) individually and in combination on some oxidative stress indices in the rat. Exposure to either arsenite or DEHP resulted in a significant elevation of advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP) and lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) concentrations in the plasma, liver, kidney and brain. The combined exposure reflected moderate additive effect on AOPP and LOOH levels in the liver and kidney respectively. The induced increases in the brain AOPP and LOOH contents were significantly more than either single treatment. Exposure to either toxicants alone led to pronounced reduction in the total antioxidative capacity (TAC) in the kidney and brain of the rats. Interestingly however, an antagonistic effect was produced by their interaction in the liver with a reversal of their individual effects. Paraoxonase activity was also drastically inhibited by all treatments in all the compartments studied. Coexposure to arsenite and DEHP displayed some specific interactive effects that are different from individual effects
The purpose of our study is to investigate the brain monoamines levels in anti-parkinson’s potential of the formulations containing roots of Withania somnifera family Solanaceae, leaves of Ocimum sanctum family Lamiaceae, and rhizome of Curcuma longa family Zingiberaceae, in reserpine and haloperidol induced parkinson’s model by using HPLC method. Parkinson’s was induced in mice by Reserpine and Haloperidol administration (1mg/kg i.p and 1mg/kg i.p. respectively). Formulations (300 mg/kg orally) was administered as pretreatment for 14 days. 0.1 M perchloric acid is used to store the brain. Protective effect of formulations I, II and III against Reserpine as well as Haloperidol induced model. Formulation II shows increased monoamine levels as compared to other two formulations in Parkinson induced mice.
In vivo mutagenicity assessment of ethion pesticide using polytene chromosomes of Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera- Culicidae)By Lovleen-
Excessive use of synthetic pesticide formulations has become an indispensable requirement in modern agricultural executions, to fulfill growing demands of food for continuously increasing human population. Consequently, the genotoxicity evaluation of corresponding xenobiotics has become crucial prerequisite, to assess their drastic and substantive effects on the integrity of genetic imprints of exposed organisms. The present investigation is attributed to the genotoxicity evaluation of ethion, employing hereditary material of Anopheles culicifacies exposed to sublethal aliquot, LC20 for continuation of 24 hours, implementing an in vivo approach viz: polytene chromosome aberration analysis. Exposure of concerned pesticide, ethion was given to second instar larvae, subsequently, larvae were reared upto fourth instar stage which were sacrificed for the study of salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Observations indicated that ethion elevated percentage frequency of discrepant aberrations, eventually expressed through structural aberrations such as ectopic pairings, inversions, chromosomal fusions, translocations, asynapses and breaks with statistical corresponding 27.35±9.49 in ethion treated stocks as compared 19.36±4.63 in control groups. Statistical analysis indicated that concerned organophosphate pesticide induced significant genotoxicity at sublethal dose.
Leaves of Phyllanthus amarus are used traditionally by Indian and Chinese system of traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases like hepato-renal, skin and other infectious diseases. Methanolic extract of P. amarus from Salem region was screened for the presence of several bioactive compounds. It was evaluated using GC-MS analysis. The methanolic extract revealed the presence of 17 medicinally important bioactive compounds among those 9,12,15- Octadecatrienoic acid (Z,Z,Z) – showed highest peak of 9.10%, followed by gamma tocopherol - 6.04 %, oxozalone - 3.59%, n-hexadecanoic acid - 2.59%, Octadecanoic acid - 1.92%, 9,17- Octadecadienal (Z) - 0.43% and Phytol - 0.61% identified during analysis.
Cadmium is an extremely hazardous heavy metal, which is widely distributed throughout the biosphere due to increase in industrialization. Its accumulation in blood affects various organs and causes many clinical dysfunctions. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of different doses of cadmium (Cd) on liver function through biochemical analysis. For this, animals were divided into three groups. Group 1: Control group. Group 2: received a single dose (acute dose) of 2mg/kg body weight of CdCl2 intraperitoneally where autopsies were done on 1, 7, 15 and 30 days post treatment. Group 3: received 0.01mg/kg body weight/day (chronic dose) of CdCl2 intraperitoneally daily for 15 and 30 days. It was observed that Cd led to significant increase in the level of serum cholesterol, LDL-c, VLDL-c and triglycerides on 15 and 30 days post treatment in both acute and chronic dose treated mice as compared to control. Similarly, in the case of transaminases, activity of SGPT was found to be increased significantly (P<0.05) in cadmium treated groups (2 and 3) compared to control mice but SGOT was increased significantly (P<0.01) only in chronic dose treated mice. Hence, the present study shows that chronic doses of cadmium to mice showed more deleterious results.
Pharmacological investigation of methanolic extract of Rhynchosia beddomei whole plant (MERB) for its antihypertensive activity, ACE inhibition, antioxidant activity via radical scavenging activity. Albino Wistar rats were treated with dexamethasone (30 μg/kg/day s.c) or saline for 14 days. MERB (300 mg/kg b.w., p.o.) was administered from day 8 to 14 day of study. Chronic fructose treatment in rats has repeatedly been shown to elevate blood pressure in association with insulin resistance. MERB (300 mg/kg b.w, p.o) was able to prevent the establishment of hypertension by decreasing the elevated blood pressure levels. The reduction in blood pressure is attributed to the inhibition of ACE by 49.6%. The preliminary phytochemical investigation suggests that the MERB possesses flavonoids, phenolics and steroids. MERB exhibited 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity with IC50 value of 7.4 μg/ml as well as superoxide ion extinguishing ability with IC50 value of 12.5 μg/ml. MERB exhibits antihypertensive activity by inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme and antioxidant activity by radical scavenging property. These findings reveal the presence of potential active constituents of MERB
Toxic Effects of Deltamethrin Doses on Antioxidative Defence Mechanism and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Rat BrainBy Poonam Sharma, Mysra Jan and Rambir Singh-
Aim: The present work was designed to study the dose dependent neurotoxic effect of Deltamethrin in Wistar rats. Deltamethrin is a type II pyrethroid insecticide. It is recommended for indoor spraying due to its high efficacy against a large variety of insects, low mammalian toxicity and easy biodegradability. There are recent reports of Deltamethrin induced system toxicity in laboratory animals. Materials and Methods: Different doses (2, or 3 or 6 mg/kg corresponding to 1/30th or 1/20th or 1/10th of LD50) of Deltamethrin were administered to Wistar rats orally by gavaging for 28 days. Results: Deltamethrin caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), decrease in glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and acetylecholinesterase (AchE) in brain of rat. Histopathological studies showed neuronal degeneration, vacuolization and degenerated glial cells. Conclusion:The alteration in these parameters may be due to oxidative stress induced by Deltamethrin. Decrease in brain acetylecholinesterase (AchE) activity may be due to direct binding of Deltamethrin to AchE. The results indicated that the neurotoxic effect of Deltamethrin in male Wistar rats was dose dependent.
Toxicological and Histopathological Impacts of Textile Dyeing Industry Effluent on a Selected Teleost Fish Poecilia ReticulataBy D. Selvaraj, R. Leena and D. Christen Kamal-
The textile effluent has been proved to impart adverse effects on the aquatic environment and its fauna. The aim of the present study was to determine the lethal concentration of a textile industry effluent to the freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata by toxicity bioassay method. The LC50 values of the effluent for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours were found to be 73.081, 67.030, 60.398, 55.521, 49.211 and 39. 726% respectively. The fishes exhibited abnormal behaviors including erratic swimming, hyper-excitation, rapid opercular movement and thick mucus covering which indicated the toxicity of the effluent. The effluent induced histopathological changes also. The primary gill bar was enlarged and secondary gill bar was detached. Liver showed cytoplasmic vacuolation and clustering of nuclei whereas in the intestine disintegration of intestinal villi and infiltration of haemocytes into the lumen was seen.
Antimicrobial Activity of the Egg White Extract of the Blister Beetle, Mylabris pustulata (Thunberg).By J. Sherly Carolyn and D. Selva Raj-
The antibacterial activity of the egg white extract of the blister beetle M. pustulata was evaluated against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria. Maximum activity was observed against V. parahaemolyticus and B. subtilis with the zones of inhibition of 25.33 ± 0.47 mm which was higher than that of a commercial antibiotic disc. Minimum activity was observed against P. aeruginosa and P. vulgaris with both having the zone of inhibition of 15.33 ± 0.47 mm
The present study was aimed to find out acute toxicity and investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic extract of Actiniopteris dichotoma bedd in rats. The acute toxicity study showed that animals fed by oral gavages tolerated the limit dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of methanolic extract of Actiniopteris dichotoma bedd. There were no visible signs of acute toxicity during the 14 days of observation. Actiniopteris dichotoma bedd was evaluated carrageenan induced paw edema and histamine induced paw edema (250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg). At the 250 mg/kg dose of methanolic extract of Actinopteris dichotoma showed inhibition ( P < 0.05) and the maximum inhibition of methanolic extract at 500 mg/kg at the time of 180 min and 240 min (P < 0.01). Methanolic extract of Actiniopteris dichotoma bedd (250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg ) for its analgesic activity by hot plate method and tail immersion method. It showed Significant value from control P < 0.05*, P < 0.01**, P < 0.001***
The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and awareness of various medical fraternities about pharmacovigilance in Government Kilpauk Medical College and Hospital (Tamil Nadu), a tertiary care teaching hospital. A cross-sectional study was carried out using a pretested questionnaire. The questionnaire was designed to assess the KAP regarding pharmacovigilance. The healthcare professionals (final MBBS students, resident doctors and nurses working in the KMC (Tamil Nadu) were included. Only those who gave their consent to participate were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software, version 16. One hundred and fifty pretested questionnaires were distributed among the healthcare professionals and 116 responded. This study demonstrated that knowledge and attitude towards pharmacovigilance is adequate among healthcare professionals and practice of ADR reporting is catching up.
Ethnopharmacological Importance of Centella Asiatica with Special Reference to Neuroprotective ActivityBy Gyanendra Tripathi, Shardendu Mishra, Prabhat Upadhyay, Suresh Purohit, G.P.Dubeya, Aruna Agrawal-
Centella asiatica is a rejuvenative nervine recommended for nervous disorders, epilepsy, senility and premature aging. As a brain tonic, it is said to aid intelligence and memory. It strengthens the adrenal glands and cleanses the blood to treat skin impurities. C. asiatica reported to possess various pharmacological activities: antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity, wound healing activity, neuroprotective activity, immunomodulatory activity, anti-inflammatory activity, hepatoprotective activity, insecticidal activity, and antioxidant activity. Centella asiatica is an important medicinal herb that is widely used in the orient. Triterpenoid, saponins, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica are manly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions.
Cytogenetic Bio-monitoring Study in Diabetes Patients by Buccal Cytome Assay in Exfoliated Buccal Epithelial CellsBy Anindya Chakraborty, Sunanda Paul, Bibhas Deb, and Prasenjit Roy-
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic disorders. It affects millions of people worldwide. Diabetes causes include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney failure, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes. The study was undertaken to compare the frequencies of nuclear abnormalities in buccal cells between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. 20 diabetic and 20 non-diabetic individuals of both sexes participated in this parallel, randomized, intervention trial. Cytogenetic damage in buccal cells was assessed by using the buccal cytome (Bcyt) assay. It was observed that micronucleus (MN) frequency was significantly higher in participants with diabetes (8.62 ± 0.52) compared with non-diabetic individuals (0.36±0.14). Significant increase was observed in other nuclear abnormalities e.g., binucleated cells (5.60±0.72) and cells with nuclear bud (6.40 ± 0.59) in diabetic individuals in comparison to non-diabetic participants binucleated cells (0.46 ± 0.18), nuclear buds (0.29 ± 0.12). When we compared all the three parameters of Bcyt assay among diabetic and non-diabetic individuals, statistically significant (P<0.001) were observed.
Domperidone is commonly used as an antiemetic and prokinetic drug. Its safety profile is presumed to be good and serious side effects are seldom associated with it. The elderly population in general is more susceptible to adverse drug reactions owing to altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Here we present a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome in an elderly lady who was prescribed domperidone .
Bromadiolone-Second Generation Anticoagulant Rodenticide Induced Nephrotoxicity on Lesser Bandicoot Rat Bandicota Bengalensis (Gray and Hardwicke)By N. Sridhar, J. Baskaran, S. Thangapandiyan, S. Dhanasekaran, D. Vasantharaja, S. Mahesh babu-
The lesser bandicoot rat, Bandicota bengalensis Gray and Hardwicke is the most predominant rodent pest species in agricultural and commensal situations. Use of rodenticides is the most common method to control rodents. Bromadiolone (BDL), a second generation anticoagulant rodenticide was tested on B. bengalensis for its effects on kidney at varied time intervals. Seven groups of six animals each were selected for experiment. Animals were fed with bromadiolone (0.005%) for 6 days in no-choice test in the form of cake bait (mixed in plain WSO) at 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs 96 hrs and 120 hrs. Results revealed significant alteration in the serum and urinary biomarkers with increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl content, and conjugated dienes in BDL treated rats. The toxicity of BDL in kidney was further evidenced by the decreased activity of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant levels and increased DNA damage and histological changes in the kidney tissues. Thus, the results of the present study clearly demonstrate that BDL has strong rodenticidal and anticoagulant properties that damage the kidney in B.benglensis.
Background: The use of antidepressant drugs has been on a rise. The aim of this study is to reveal the harmful effects; these drugs can have on developing fetuses, when taken by pregnant women. Thus, Chick embryos are used as developmental model system to study the potential teratogenic effects of antidepressants. Materials & methods: Two antidepressant drugs namely Etizolam and Fluoxetine (Prozac) at 3 doses (low, medium, high) were injected into 48 hours fertilized eggs through air-sac route. A control group of eggs was injected with normal saline and maintained. The effect of drugs on early development (after 11 days incubation), late development (after 18 days incubation) and hatchability characteristics were studied. Further biochemical analysis of treated tissues was carried out. This included Agarose gel electrophoresis, quantification of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) by DPA (Diphenylamine) method, SDS-PAGE and protein quantification by Bradford assay. Results: The effect of drugs on early development resulted in no growth and death of embryos however effect on late development caused malformations and reduced size compared to control embryos. Both drugs damaged DNA to different extents and protein concentration was also greatly reduced. Conclusion: However Etizolam proved to be more toxic as it engendered more DNA damage than Fluoxetine. Further, a difference in their mechanism of teratogenicity was also inferred as response of cells to both the drugs was different. Thus, the use of these antidepressant drugs should be avoided during pregnancy especially during the first trimester and third trimester.
In-Vitro Low-Density Lipoprotein Protective and Lipid Metabolism Modulatory Effect of Calotropis Procera Root Bark in Poloxamer-407-Induced HyperlipidemiaBy Devdas D. Santani, Ashishkumar V. Kyada,-
Atherogenic hyperlipidemia is a metabolic syndrome characterised by abnormal increase in the circulatory lipids and lipoprotein levels and important cause of cardiovascular diseases worldwide. A variety of plants have been claimed to have antihyperlipidemic effect based upon their folklore use in Indian traditional system of medicine. However, many of such plants are not scientifically validated on the basic of phytochemicals present. Therefore, in the present investigation, antihyperlipdemic activity of Calotropis procera root bark aqueous extract and its different solvent fractions have been investigated in poloxamer-407, a surfactant-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Administration of crude extract, ethyl acetate and aqueous fraction of the plant has significantly reduced total serum cholesterol, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein when compared to disease control group. Low-density lipoproteins were also reduced, but not statistically significant in these animal groups. Moreover, extract and fractions also demonstrated protective effect against copper-catalyzed human plasma LDL oxidation, suggesting beneficial role of plant in retarding atherogenic pathobiology.
Objectives: High blood lead and cadmium levels were associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between blood lead and cadmium levels in pregnant females and preeclampsia. Methods: A total of 130 pregnant female were enrolled in the study. The study included 80 pregnant women were suffering from preeclampsia (preeclampsia group) and 50 healthy pregnant women taken as (control group). Lead and cadmium levels were measured in blood of all study participants. Results: There was significant increase in blood lead level among the preeclampsia group (p value=0.001) when compared with the control group. Also, cadmium level was significantly higher in the preeclampsia group (p value=0.017) when compared with the control group. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that high blood lead and cadmium levels were significant risk factors for development of preeclampsia
Characterization of [3-(3-Carbamoylphenyl) Phenyl] N-Cyclohexyl Carbamate, an Inhibitor of FAAH: Effect on Rat Liver FAAH and HEK293T-FAAH-2 Deamination of Oleamide, Arachidonamide and StearoylamideBy Julius T. Dongdem, Simon P. Dawson and Stephen P. H. Alexander-
The carbamate, [3-(3-carbamoylphenyl) phenyl] N-cyclohexyl carbamate (URB597) is a known irreversible inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) which is capable of increasing intracellular endocannabinoid levels to measurable antidepressant and analgesic effects in animal models.Several endocannabinoid-like compounds such as the primary fatty acid amides (PFAMs)are also important signaling molecules whichcontrol many physiological processes and exhibit the characteristic cannabimimetics though the physiological functions of some remain elusive. Thus, PFAMs remain candidates for examination. Since the initial discovery of URB597, little has been reported on its ability to inhibit the FAAH-dependent metabolism of important PFAM substrates. Also, the mode of inhibition of FAAH hydrolysis of substrates by URB597 has not been characterized.FAAH-2 was expressed in HEK293T cells whereas FAAHwas assayed from rat liver preparations. Activity assay employed was a modification of ahigh throughput fluorimetric screening method1. URB597 exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of both FAAH and FAAH-2 hydrolysisof the 3 PFAMs. The potency (pIC50) of URB597 obtained against FAAH activity were 6.6 ± 0.1, 6.0 ± 0.1 and 6.0 ± 0.1 for ODA, ArDA and SyDA. URB597 also inhibited FAAH-2 metabolism of PFAMs in a rank order of ODA > ArDA ≈ SyDA (respective pIC50 values were 6.90 ± 0.10, 6.77 ± 0.02 and 6.75 ± 0.10). The Km and Vmax values for FAAH were 43.0 ± 6.0 µM and 14 ± 2 nmol.min-1.(mg protein)-1 for ArDA and 60 ± 4 µM and 14 ± 1 nmol.min-1.(mg protein)-1 for ODA. Our results suggest that URB597 inhibited FAAH hydrolysis of both ArDA and ODA in an uncompetitive manner.
The Effect of the Antioxidant Drug “u-74389g” on White Blood Cells Levels During Hypoxia Reoxygenation Injury in Rats.By C. Τsompos, C. Panoulis, K Τοutouzas, G. Ζografos, A. Papalois-
The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of U-74389G on rat model and particularly in an hypoxia – reoxygenation (HR) protocol. The effect of that molecule was studied hematologically using blood mean white blood cells levels. Materials and methods: 40 rats of mean weight 231.875 g were used in the study. White blood cells levels were measured at 60 min (groups A and C) and at 120 min (groups B and D) of reoxygenation. U-74389G was administered only in groups C and D. Results were that U-74389G administration kept significantly increased the white blood cells level by 30.12%+10.87% (p=0.0050). Reoxygenation time also kept significantly increased the white blood cells level by 25.18%+11.64% (p=0.0300). However, U-74389G administration and reoxygenation time together kept significantly increased the white blood cells level by 23.64%+6.32% (p=0.0003). Conclusions: Results of this study show that U-74389G administration, reoxygenation time and their interaction kept short-term significantly increased the white blood cells levels. The U-74389G administration which has antioxidant capacity through oxygen free radical scavenging, could not disrupt short-term the vicious cycle of HR and leukocytosis.
Background: Chick embryos are mostly used as developmental model system to study the potential effects of various drugs and their mechanism of action. However inaccessibility of developing chick embryo in the egg has led to partial understanding of the effects and mechanisms of various drugs. Hence, an experiment to design and develop a culture vessel and culture medium to support growth of chick embryos was devised. Materials & Methods: A trial and error method using normal and daily laboratory glassware and naturally occurring nutrient rich food was performed. Chick embryos were grown in various containers through which developing embryo could be studied without having to break open through the container. The nutrients required for the development of the embryo was provided by daily and cheap food sources like milk, egg. The time period of the experiment allowed six trials to be performed which brought about partial success to the above objective of the experiment. Results and Conclusion: A protein rich combination of Milk whey, Albumen, Pannett-Compton saline where whey was higher in proportion was indicative of supporting the growing chick embryo and an improved culture vessel was designed which helped maintain the pH and also drain away the excess medium. It also helped restrict the position of the embryo in the vessel.
Liver is one of the vital organs in the human body. It plays a major role in several metabolic reactions. Cirrhosis, hepatitis, jaundice, liver cancer are some of the disorders due to which the liver diminishes. The available drugs are not completely curbing the disorders and mostly they are fetching side effects. Medicinal plants can combat to these problems and can be used for the therapy. The plant Streblus asper is collected from the village area of Kesamudram, Warangal district. The plant leaves were dried, powdered and used for the extraction. Methanol and aqueous were used as solvents to prepare the extract through maceration technique. The albino rats were divided into the following groups for studying the hepatoprotective activity. Group- I control, group-II- CCl4 (1ml /kg 1:1 in coconut oil- i.p.,), group- III - CCl4+ Liv – 52 (5ml/kg), group-IV – CCl4+ SAALE (Streblus asper Aqueous Leaf Extract) 200mg/kg, , group-V- CCl4+ SAALE 400mg/kg, group-VI- CCl4+ SAMLE-(Streblus asper Methanol Leaf Extract) 200 mg/kg and group-VII- CCl4+ SAMLE 400 mg/kg. 8 rats were maintained in each group, the treatment of the extract and liver tonic was done through oral with gastric gavage for 14 days. On 15th day the blood of the rats was collected through retro orbital plexus. The serum samples were separated for the serological tests. The rats were sacrificed and livers were processed for the histological sections. The serum parameters like increased bilirubin, SGOT, SGPT, ALP, LDL, VLDL, Cholesterol, triglycerides and decreased levels of protein, HDL were noticed in the CCl4 induced group-II rats. The normal levels were seen in the both extracts administered rats. Results were compared significantly with group-III. Reformed hepatocytes in the extracts treated rats were also supported the hepatoprotective activity of the extracts. The SAMLE showed better results than to the SAALE.
To Develop and Standardize the Animal Model for Diabetic Foot Ulcer Using Alloxan Attenuatethe Complication by Combination of Extracted Aloe VeraBy Vivek.P.Kahale , Naresh .J.Gaikwad-
The core finding of the present preclinical study is to develop and standardize the animal model of diabetic foot ulcers by using varying doses of Alloxan by using excision and incision wound ulcer technique. Optimization with subcutaneous administration of the chemical inducer (Alloxan) through blood glucose and body weightmonitoring of rat. Administration of prescribed oral and topical doses of Aloe Vera is remarkably protective effects in diabetic and its complication using male wistar rats against alloxan induced Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU). Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disorder.Diabetes mellitus is now defined as a metabolic disorder in which the body’s capacity to utilize glucose, fat and protein is disturbed due to insulin deficiency, insulin resistance or both. Diabetes is a condition which is known to be associated with a variety of connective tissue abnormalities. The collagen content of the skin is decreased as a result of reduced biosynthesis and or accelerated degradation of newly synthesized collagen and epithelisation. These qualitative and quantitative abnormalities contribute to the impaired wound healing observed in diabetes.Aqueous extract of Aloe Vera (AGE, Oral) with ethanolic extract of Aloe Vera (AG, Topical) act as DFU protective agent. Relevant doses of Aloe Veratreatment significantly attenuated damage of rat against Alloxan induced connective tissue abnormality in diabetic wound ulcer. The histopathological examination and wound ulcer contractionresults show that Aloe Vera treatment is effective in DFU models; it could be used as an effective therapeutic agent in the management of Diabetic foot ulcers and related conditions.
Cognitive enhancing activity of ACV on scopolamine induced memory impairment in mice was investigated byusing elevated plus maze and estimation of biochemical parameter in terms of AChE activity. Two doses (0.51ml/kg) and (1.02 ml/kg b.wp.o) of ACV were subjected for the evaluation of nootropic activity against the amnesia induced by scopalamine (0.4mg/kg, i.p) in young mice. Pirecetam (400 mg/kg i.p) was served as standard in both the models. The animals were challenged for twice examination in 27 days study.The long term administration of both the lower (0.51ml/kg) and higher dose (1.02ml/kg) of ACV produced significant reduction of TL (P<0.01) and (P<0.05) in EPM model on both 19th and 27th day when compared with control and induced groups. ACV at higher dose significantly (p<0.01) reduce the activity of AchE in the brain indicates the improvement in learning and retention of memory in young mice, concluded that apple cider vinegar was found to be effective against amnesia induced by scopalamine
Biochemical and Histological Changes of Wrightia Tinctoria r. Br. Extracts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats.By Mondi Sandhya Rani, Gottumukkala Krishna Mohan, Kalakotla Shanker-
The aim of the current research work is to evaluate the biochemical changes of fruit extracts of Wrightia tinctoria in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of W.tinctoria were obtained by cold maceration and have been administered to alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Parameters including Blood glucose, Triglycerides, Cholesterol, Protein, Urea, Creatinine, SGPT, SGOT were checked using standard test kits and methods after administration of extracts and found significant improvement. Histological changes in pancreas and liver of the animal were also examined. The study showed significant improvement after giving drug extracts in diabetic rats. The implications of results after administration of the extracts show their potential use in management of diabetes.
Background: Awareness of antioxidantpotential of natural fruit, vegetables, medicinal plants etc. is rapidly developing world wide. Free oxidative radicals produced in our body by the process of natural metabolism cause the damage of healthy cells in our body. Antioxidants scavenge the free oxidative radicals and protect our healthy cells. Present study is an attempt to evaluate the antioxidant potential of Grape seed by estimating the total phenolic contents.Gallic acid, the specific bioactive compound present in grape seed , identified by HPLC technique, showed to have a genoprotective potential for prevention of oxidative DNA damage. Materials & methods: Fresh grape seeds in form of powder were used for methanol, ethanol and acetone solvent extraction. The specific bioactive compound present in grape seed extract (Gallic acid) was analytically separated and identified by HPLC technique. Antioxidant potential of Grape seed was checked on Yeast Model by Viable Cell Count method, which showed that grape seed extract prevents oxidative cell damage. Total Phenolic compounds present in grape seed was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The potential of scavenging oxidative radicals was proved by DPPH assay. FRAP assay determined the potential of grape seed extract to reduce ferric compounds to ferrous, which is considered to be an important property of being an anti-oxidant. Protection of oxidative DNA damage by grape seed extract was also shown by Agarose Gel Electrophoresis technique using plasmid DNA. Results: The data obtained through various chemical and biological methods indicated that grape seed has high potential of scavenging oxidative radicals which can cause oxidative DNA damage and the above extract can also prevent oxidative cell death by reducing the effects of UV radiation evidenced by using yeast model. Conclusion: Now-a-days air pollution, chemicals, food additives, industrial pollution, fertilizers, pesticides etc., increase the chances of diseases related to DNA and cell damages which can cause cancer and neurodegenerative complications. Hence searching for natural substances which can prevent and reduce the damage of healthy cells in human body is a vital requirement. Grape seed with high antioxidant value, genoprotective potential and low cost therefore can make it a highly demandable supplement.
Comparative Study of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline (3%) Epinephrine and Normal Saline in the Management of Children with Acute BronchiolitisBy Dr. Sanjiv Nanda, Dr. Nikhil Sharma,-
BACKGROUND: Nebulized adrenaline is used as preferred treatment in addition to supportive care in bronchiolitis but it causes tachycardia. Nebulized 3% saline and normal saline are also used.Few studies compared these 3 in efficacy and safety. MATERIAL AND METHODS-Observational analytical study including 90 Children divided in 3 groups, aged 2-24 months, presenting with bronchiolitis. Length of hospital stay and treatment failure at 24 hours were the primary outcomes .Clinical scoring system by Uyan et alwas used. Group A received Epinephrine, Group B received HS and GroupC received NS. Patients enrolled successively in three groups. Scores and heart rate were monitored at 24 hours. Increase in score of 2 or more (from admission score) or heart rate above 200 or 10% increase over baseline, considered as treatment failure RESULTS: Baseline characters of patients in three groups were similar. CS scores at admission were 7.8 in group A, 7.4 in group B and 7.6 in group C. After 24 hours, percentage decrease in CS score after inhalation therapy was better for group A (70%) and B (64%) compared to group C (16%). Score worsened in 2 patients of group A 3 patients of group B and 5 patients of group C, while 3 patients of adrenaline group were excluded due to tachycardia. Length of hospital stay was lower in group A and B (57.1 AND 55.7) compared to group C (74.8) CONCLUSION Nebulized 3% saline and adrenaline are comparable but more effective than normal saline. Adrenaline has side effects of tachycardia.
Evaluation of Memory Impairment and Anti-Epileptic Activity of Carbamazepine Alone and In Presence of Herbal NootropicBy Ramprasad KL, Parashuram Punde, Krishna KL, Mahalakshmi AM, Rishita N, Chinmaya Narayana K and Praveen Singh-
The present study was aimed to assess the memory impairment activity of Carbamazepine (CBZ) in presence and absence of Nardostachys jatamansi. Memory impairments are common side effects in epileptic patients and antiepileptic drugs can worsen memory impairment. Nootropic drugs may be of potential in reducing the memory impairment when given along with antiepileptic drugs. Therefore ethanolic extract of Nardostachys jatamansi (ENJ) was prepared and standardized by preliminary phytochemical tests, determination and total phenolic and flavonoid content and in-vitro antioxidant activities like DPPH, Super oxide (SO), Hydroxyl (OH), Nitric oxide (NO) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity. CBZ was administered orally for 29 days in rats to assess the memory impairment ability by employing Barne’s maze on PTZ induced convulsions. ENJ exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity when evaluated by in-vitro methods. CBZ increased Escape Latency Time (ELT), number of errors and decreased Time spent in Target Quadrant (TSTQ) when compared to vehicle treated group in rat indicating memory impairment due to its chronic administration. When ENJ was given along with CBZ significant decrease in memory impairment induced by CBZ was observed. The anticonvulsant activity of CBZ was found to be potentiated due to the co-administration of ENJ when compared to vehicle and CBZ alone treated animals. The AChE levels in CBZ were found to increase when compared to vehicle, where as co-administration of ENJ produced a decrease in AChE levels when compared to vehicle and CBZ treated group. The combination of reduced dose of CBZ with ENJ was also shown decrease in memory impairment without altering its anticonvulsant activity. Findings of the present study supplements the above fact, however further research is required.
Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Activity of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Trigonella Foenum-Graecum Linn. In Alloxan Induced Diabetic RatsBy Alimuddin Saifi, Rajani Chauhan and Jaya Dwivedi-
Background: Trigonella foenum graecum Linn. (Commonly known as Methi or Fenugreek) seed extract belonging to family Leguminosae have been documented to elicit hypoglycemic activity. Herbal preparations of T. foenum graecum have been considered as safe, effective and economical for various ailments in Indian traditional system of medicine. Its seed extract is used for the treatment of diabetes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the hypoglycemic potential and effect on various biochemical parameters of hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v) of seeds of T. foenum graecum (TGE) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and method: Albino Wister male rats of weighing between 150 to 200 gms of were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided in different groups for the study. Group I served as normal control, Group II served as diabetic control, Group III served as standard control and treated by Tolbutamide 100 mg/kg p.o. Group IV served as diabetic rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of T. foenum graecum seeds at a dosage of 1000 mg/kg body weight. All the treatments were given for 21 days. At the end of study, over night fasted rats were sacrificed and blood was collected to determine fasting blood glucose and biochemical findings. Result: Diabetic rats treated with TGE at a dose of 1000 mg/kg significantly (P<0.01) reduced fasting blood glucose and normalize the lipid profile, renal profile and hepatic profile. Improvement in the histopathology of pancreas & liver of TGE treated rats confirmed its protective role in alloxan induced diabetes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v) of seeds of T. foenum graecum possess antidiabetic activity and may be beneficial improving complications associated with diabetes mellitus.
Protective Role of Alove Vera Against Aluminum Induced Changes in the Body Weight Reduction of Albino Rats, Rattus NorvegicusBy Laxman K. Jakkala and Sharique A. Ali-
The current study was carried out to investigate protective role of Alove Vera against aluminum induced changes in the body weight reduction of albino rats due to its deleterious effects. Aloe vera is a medicinal plant belonging to the family –Liliaceae, which has a wide range of therapeutic applications such as wound healing, diabetes, burns, for easing intestinal, curing ulcers and arthritic swellings. 30 adult rats were taken and divided into 3 groups 10 (5+5) for each. Animals were fed with normal diet and water ad-libitum, as Group I or control group. Group II animals were fed with normal diet and received aluminium in a dose of 98 mg/kg of body weight orally for 30 and 60 days. Group III were fed with normal diet and received aloin (100mg/kg body weight) and aluminium sulphate (98 mg/kg body weight) for 15, 30 and 60 days. On the last day of the experiment, animals were weighed on 15, 30th and 60th days respectively. The results of the present study clearly indicated that aluminium sulphate per se treated group has significantly reduced the body weight of albino rats. But after co treatment of rats with aloin the extract of Aloe vera and aluminum sulphate, the restoration of body weight was observed in co treatment group, indicating the protective role of aloin against aluminium sulphate toxicity.
Malaria continues to be a great health problem in some of the most populated areas of the world & continues to cause significant illorbidity and illortality worldwide. At present, official figures for malaria in India, available at NVBDCP, indicate 0.7-1.6 million confirmed cases and 400-1,000 deaths annually. Hematological changes, which are the most common systemic complications, play a significant role in these serious complications. The haematological abnormalities that have been reported to consistently companion which comprise anaemia, thrombocytopenia, and atypical lymphocytosis and infrequently disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hence the study had been planned to study the haematological changes in the malarial patients. The study has planned in North Indian Hospital. The 100 patients detected with malaria were enrolled in to the study. The age group of the patients are from 20-70 years In the present study the commonly affected age group is 31-40 years. In the 100 patients, 61 patients were observed with P. Falciparum infection. 32 patients were observed with P. Vivax infection. 10 cases are observed with mixed type of infections.
Diabetes, often referred to by as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia). The level of the various biochemical markers and the electrolyte get affected in the diabetic patients. Hence the present syudy was planned to estimate the levels of the Fating glucose level, Glycated haemoglobin (HbAlc), Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, High Density Lipid, and Low Density Lipid. Also the electrolyte levels like sodium, potassium, chlorine and bicarbonate is also monitored. The concentration of HbAlc, Cholesterol and low density lipid implies a positive correlation with the triglycerides. The levels of the high density lipid and serum chlorine showed negative correlation with triglycerides. Cholesterol and low density lipid showed significant positive correlation with HbAlc. The study also showed that the diabetic patients have electrolyte imbalance characterized by depletion in the levels of sodium, potassium and chlorine and increased in the levels of the bicarbonat
Anti-Snake Venom Activities of Ethanol and Aqueous Extract of Asparagus Racernosus Against Indian Cobra (Naja Naja)Venom Induced ToxicityBy Sunil Prashar, Shivkumar Swamyl, Mallappa ShalavadiZ-
Background: Snake bite is an occupational hazard that leads to significant number of fatalities and medical emergencies in developing countries. The focus of research in the field of snake bite management is now on the plant kingdom as across countries from time immemorial traditional healers have been using herbal drugs for management of snake bite. Objective: To evaluate anti-snake venom activities of ethanol and aqueous extracts of Asparagus racernosus (AR) against Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: Anti-snake venom activities of Asparagus racernosus against Indian cobra (Naja naja) venom induced toxicity was studied via in vitro phospholipase A2 induced hemolysis on sheep RBC and Naja naja venom induced anticoagulation, in- vivo neutralization activity against lethality induced by Naja naja venom in rats, Naja naja venom induced edema and effect on bleeding time of venomized rats. Results: The minimum lethal dose (MLD) was found as 2mglkg and both ethanol and aqueous extracts of Asparagus racernosus possess significant neutralization activity against Naja naja venom induced lethality. Both AR extracts inhibited phospholipase A2 dependent hemolysis of sheep RBC and exhibited significant reduction (p<0.001) in the anti-coagulant activity of venom with 71.87% and 78.87% inhibition by ethanol and aqueous extract of Asparagus racernosus (EAR) at 300 pg respectively. EAR and AAR at doses of 300, 600 and 900 mglkg exhibited significant (p<0.001) decrease in bleeding time and both extracts also displayed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting edema significantly (p<0.001). Conclusion: These findings suggest a potential antivenom role of Asparagus racernosus against Naja naja envenomation.
Triclosan Induced Alterations of Biochemical Parameters in Zebra Fish Brachydaniorerio (Ham.) and their Productive Role by Dietary Supplementation of Garlic Extract and L-Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)By Sekar Sethuraman, Thangappan Ramesh Kumar,Thangarasu Vivekananthan, Vithiyanathan Iyyappan and Kanagaraj Anandaraj-
The pesticides have different adverse impacts on different life stages of fish species with attempts to use dietary antioxidants to counteract their effects. Triclosan (TCS) is commonly used as antimicrobial agent that is incorporated into dish soap, detergent, toothpaste, mouthwash, shampoo, etc., in addition to innumerable other personal care and household products. Hence the current study was carried out to investigated the potential protective effects of garlic extract and L-Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and their combination versus triclosan-induced changes in zebra fish Brachydaniorerio (Hamilton). The median lethal concentration of triclosan for 96h is (0.32mg/L). The species were exposed to sub lethal concentration of triclosan (0.32mg/L) for 7 and 28 days. Triclosan significantly (P<0.05) increasesthe lipid peroxidation, supperoxide dismutase, enzyme catalase, and increases the serum glucose level. Addition of garlic extract and/or Vitamin C to the diet of triclosan-treated fish showed the increase level of the serum glucose, serum total protein, total lipid, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, albumin and cholesterol , LPO, SOD, CAT, levels in comparison to control fish. On the other hand, triclosan significantly (P<0.05) led to negative effect in serum total protein, total lipid, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, albumin and cholesterol levels.However, the fish fed with garlic extract and/or L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in diets neutralized the toxic effect of triclosan. The result suggests that, supplemented garlic extract and/or vitamin C can be effectively used to neutralize the toxic effect of triclosan on zebra fish Brachydaniorerio (Ham)
Detailed Algorithms of Interactive Computer Programs in MATLAB for the Calculation of LD50 and other LD values Using Method of Finney ,Miller-Tainter and Comparison of OECD ModificationBy Milan B.Arambasic, Mohammad A.Randhawa and Vladan M. Arandjelovic-
Effect of Methotrexate Treatment on Inos Gene Expression Protein Tyrosine Nitration Protein Cysteine Nitrosylation,and the Activities of Mitochondrial Enzymes in the Small Intestinal Mucosa of RatsBy Kasthuri Natarajanl, Premila Abraham, Bina Isaac-
Aim: Methotrexate (MTX) is a structural analogue of folic acid and is widely used in the treatment of leukaemia and other malignancies, rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic disorders. Gastrointestinal mucositis is a frequent dose-limiting side effect of methotrexate (MTX) chemotherapy. The underlying mechanisms of the mucositis is not completely understood. In the present study we examined the effect of MTX treatment on iNOS gene expression, protein tyrosine nitration protein cysteine nitrosylation, and the activities of mitochondrial enzymes in the small intestinal mucosa of rats Methods: Gastrointestinal injury was induced in the rats by the administration of 3 consecutive i.p. injections of 7 mg /kg body wt. MTX .The small intestines were used for light microscopy and immunohistochemical localisation of iNOS, nitrotyrosine (NTy) and nitrocysteine (NCy). Mucosal scrapings were used for iNOS mRNA expression by RTPCR, iNOS protein, nitrotyrosine and protein cysteine adducts formation by western blot and assay of key mitochondrial enzymes. Results: MTX treatment resulted in moderate to severe damage to the small intestines. iNOS mRNA expression , iNOS protein, NTy protein adduct and NCy adducts were increased in the MTX treated rat intestines. The activities of electron transport chain (ETC) complexes IV and V were decreased by 66% and 71 % respectively in the MTX treated rat intestines. With respect to tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes, aconitase activity was decreased by 73 %, succinate dehydrogenase by 85 % and glutamate dehydrogenase by 61%. With respect to antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased by 40 %, and that of catalase, glutathione reductase, were decreased by 68 % and 66%, respectively. Conclusion: The gastrointestinal toxicity induced by MTX may be due to increased nitrosative stress. The decreased activities of the mitochondrial energy producing enzymes and antioxidant enzyme may be due to their inactivation by MTX induced nitric oxide overproduction
Triclosan Induced Alterations of Biochemical Parameters in Zebra Fish Brachydaniorerio (Ham.) and their Productive Role by Dietary Supplementation of Garlic Extract and L-Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C)By Sekar Sethuraman, Thangappan Ramesh Kumar,Thangarasu Vivekananthan, Vithiyanathan Iyyappan and Kanagaraj Anandaraj-
The pesticides have different adverse impacts on different life stages of fish species with attempts to use dietary antioxidants to counteract their effects. Triclosan (TCS) is commonly used as antimicrobial agent that is incorporated into dish soap, detergent, toothpaste, mouthwash, shampoo, etc., in addition to innumerable other personal care and household products. Hence the current study was carried out to investigated the potential protective effects of garlic extract and L-Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) and their combination versus triclosan-induced changes in zebra fish Brachydaniorerio (Hamilton). The median lethal concentration of triclosan for 96h is (0.32mg/L). The species were exposed to sub lethal concentration of triclosan (0.32mg/L) for 7 and 28 days. Triclosan significantly (P<0.05) increasesthe lipid peroxidation, supperoxide dismutase, enzyme catalase, and increases the serum glucose level. Addition of garlic extract and/or Vitamin C to the diet of triclosan-treated fish showed the increase level of the serum glucose, serum total protein, total lipid, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, albumin and cholesterol , LPO, SOD, CAT, levels in comparison to control fish. On the other hand, triclosan significantly (P<0.05) led to negative effect in serum total protein, total lipid, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, albumin and cholesterol levels.However, the fish fed with garlic extract and/or L-Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in diets neutralized the toxic effect of triclosan. The result suggests that, supplemented garlic extract and/or vitamin C can be effectively used to neutralize the toxic effect of triclosan on zebra fish Brachydaniorerio (Ham).
Background: Chlorpyriphos-ethyl (CE) is an organophosphate insecticide largely used in our communities for crop protection and hygienic purposes and limited data is available on its toxicity after prenatal exposure. In this study the effects CE were evaluated on the fertility in male rats exposed prenatally to the pesticide. Methods: Four groups of primiparous pregnant rats were orally given every two days a dose of CE (0.00, 3.50, 4.25 or 10.50 mg.kg-1 of body weight) for the whole gestational period. After delivery, male offspring were bred for 4 months without treatment and fifteen days to the end, each male was housed with 2 females for the fertility test. At the end of the experimental period, animals were weighed and then sacrificed and reproductive organs collected. The right cauda epididymis was used for the evaluation of sperm motility and concentration while the testis was submitted to histopathology analysis. Results: No significant effect (P > 0.05) was shown on reproductive organ weights in rat born from CE-treated female as compared to the control group. The epididymal sperm count was comparable (P > 0.05) among treatments, but the highest dose of CE, 10.50mg.kg-1 significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the percentage of motile sperms in male rats pups. This dose also induced an over spacing in animal testicular seminiferous tubules. The fertility rate was not significantly low in male rats prenatally exposed to 3.50mg.kg-1. Conclusion: These data suggest that in utero exposure of male rats to CE can lead to adverse effects such as decrease sperm motility with alteration of seminiferous tubules and slight reduced fertility.
Aim of the study was to study effects of repeated dose administration of extract of roots of Spermadictyonsuaveolens in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Effects of extract of Spermadictyonsuaveolens wasstudied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 1 week after the administration of streptozotocin, diabetic rats received herbal extract orally at dose 500 mg/kg body weight for 28 consecutive days.Administration of streptozotocin resulted in 3-4 fold increase in fasting plasma glucose level. Treatment with herbal extract showed glucose lowering effect from first week. Results show that extract of roots of Spermadictyonsuaveolens possesses antidiabetic activity.
Study of Biochemical and Haematological Response of Vitamin B12 Supplementation in Pregnant Anaemic Women with Vitamin B12 DeficiencyBy Roopali Goyal , ManjuPuri , Shailaja Shukla and Amita Yadav-
Background: There are limited studies on biochemical and haematological response to vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficiency in literature. Aim: To evaluate the biochemical and haematological response of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia. Method: Thirty pregnant women with macrocytic anaemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency with gestation <36 weeks, Hemoglobin <10.0 gm/dl, MCV > 100 fl, platelet count >30,000 cells/mm3 withno other comorbidity were administered a single dose of 1000 μg of vitamin B12 intramuscularly. Blood samples were subjected to complete blood count with peripheral smear, reticulocyte count and vitamin B12 levels before and 4 weeks after vitamin B12 administration. Results: Majority (90%) were multigravida and 90% were vegetarian. Fatigue was the commonest complaint (70%). Mean Hemoglobin improved from 8.76 ± 0.65 to 10.53 ± 0.63 gm/dl, TLC increased from 5483.33 ± 866.65 cells/cumm to 7726.66 ± 1275.75 cells/cumm, platelet count improved from 1.86 ± 0.44 lac cells/cumm to 3.16 ± 0.66 lac cells/cumm, MCV decreased from 102.1 ± 1.6 fl to 96.4 ± 1.55 fl. Mean MCH decreased from 32.87 ± 0.65 pg to 29.39 ± 0.7 pg. MCHC changed from 32.18 ± 0.85 gm/dl to 30.47 ± 0.84 gm/dl, Reticulocyte count increased from 0.52 ± 0.14% to 0.78 ± 0.18% and vitamin B12 levels improved from 189.83 ± 10.85 pg/ml. to 435 ± 107.91 pg/ml. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.001 for all values). Conclusion: A single dose of 1000 μg vitamin B12 intramuscular administration results a statistically significant increase in serum vitamin B12 levels in pregnant women with vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia.
Respiratory failure is the primary cause of death in poisonings involving carbamate insecticides. However, the mechanisms of respiratory toxicity induced by carbamates remain unclear. The aims of this study were i) to describe the respiratory effects of methomyl, ii) to assess the peripheral or central origin of those effects, and iii) to study the dose-effect relationship of atropine. A dose of methomyl corresponding to 50% of the median lethal dose was given intraperitoneally to rats. Ventilation at rest was assessed using whole body plethysmography and core body temperature using infra-red telemetry. The central or peripheral origin was assessed comparing the effect of equipotent doses of atropine and methylatropine. The effects of dose of atropine ranging from 1 to 10 mg/kg were assessed. Total cholinesterase activities were determined using a radiometric method. From 5 to 150 minutes post-injection, methomyl induced significant clinical symptoms, including significant decreases in respiratory frequency, which resulted from a significant increase in expiratory time. Methomyl induced a significant inhibition of brain total cholinesterase activities; meanwhile, atropine, but not methylatropine, completely reversed methomyl-induced respiratory toxicity. The dose-effect study showed that the efficient dose of atropine resulting in lowest adverse effects was 3 mg/kg while greater doses were efficient but induced significant adverse effects. Decrease in brain cholinesterase activities accompanied by a positive effect of atropine, but not methylatropine, suggests a central origin of methomylinduced respiratory toxicity. The 3 mg/kg single atropine dose yielded the best compromise between antidotal activity and intrinsic effects.